Berries Production Guide

Raspberries
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Insects and Mites

This section was updated - 26 June 2017

When using insecticides select ones that have the least impact on beneficial insects whenever possible. Refer to “Pesticide toxicity to beneficial insects” in the General Pest section. Most insecticides are toxic to bees. Avoid applying insecticides during the blossom period. If it is absolutely necessary to apply them during this period, notify beekeepers in the area. Evening applications are less dangerous than daytime applications.

Growers who mechanically harvest may need to apply a preharvest “clean-up” spray to control weevils, caterpillars and other insects which can become contaminants in harvested fruit. See weevil and caterpillar control below for control recommendations.

Aphids

Hosts

Attacks red raspberry, loganberry, and blackberry.

Damage

Aphids rarely do any direct damage to raspberries but are a concern as carriers of virus diseases and contaminants in machine harvested fruit. They are a periodic problem on the Meeker and other susceptible varieties.

Identification

The raspberry aphid and a few other species attack raspberries. Aphids are found in colonies on new shoot growth, buds, undersides of leaves, and near flower and fruit clusters. Adult aphids are small (2 to 3 mm) and vary in colour from pale yellow, green, to red. As colonies become crowded, winged forms appear. The immature stages resemble small wingless adults.

Life History

Aphids overwinter as eggs on plants. Under coastal conditions eggs hatch about May. The nymphs feed on blossoms, then growing shoots and leaves. There are several generations during the spring and summer. In the fall, winged forms disperse and lay eggs on the overwintering host plants.

Monitoring

Early detection is important for effective, economical control. Inspect growing tips weekly from before bloom to harvest. Inspect several sites, especially in the upwind margins of the planting where wind blown aphids are most likely to occur.

Management

Biological control

Aphids are often controlled by a number of native predators and parasites including ladybugs, lacewings, and syrphid larvae. If chemicals are needed for other pests, pesticides that will have the least impact on the beneficial insects should be used. Refer to “Pesticide toxicity to beneficial insects” in the General Pest Chapter.

Resistant varieties

BC varieties such as Chemainus, Malahat and Rudi have been selected for aphid resistance. However, in recent years resistance-breaking strains of the raspberry aphid have been detected in BC.

Chemical control

Usually natural enemies and/or pesticides applied to control other pests like fruitworm, caterpillars and weevils will minimize aphid problems on raspberries. However, if a separate spray becomes necessary, there are a number of chemicals registered for use against aphids on raspberries.

Apply:

Admire 240F or Alias 240SC (240 g/L imidacloprid) at 175 mL/ha (70 mL/acre) as a foliar spray in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. If multiple applications are necessary, allow at least 7 days between sprays. Do not apply within 4 days of harvest; or

Note: Admire and Alias are toxic to bees. Do not apply immediately pre-bloom or during bloom when bees are actively foraging.

Assail 70WP (70% acetamiprid) at  56 to 86 g/ha (22 to 34 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Use the higher rate when pest pressure is heavy.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 4 times per season. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or 

Note: Assail is toxic to bees. Do not apply during bloom when bees are actively foraging. 

Movento 240SC (240 g/L spirotetramat) at 220-365 mL/ha (88-146 mL/ac) in a minimum of 300 L/ha (120 L/ac) of water.  Apply post-bloom.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

PyGanic EC1.4 (1.4 % pyrethrins) at 2.32 to 4.65 L/ha (0.93 to 1.86 L/acre) in enough water to ensure complete coverage of all plant surfaces. Apply promptly after mixing. Do not reapply within 7 days. Do not apply more than 8 times per season. It may be applied up to the day of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production.

Sivanto Prime (200g/L flupyradifurone) at 500-750 ml/ha (196-295 ml/acre) in a minimum of 100 L/ha (40 L/acre) of water as a directed foliar spray. Do not apply more than once every 7 days. Do not exceed 2000 ml/ha (787 ml/acre) per season. Do not apply within 0 days of harvest.

Cane Maggot

Hosts

All cane fruit.

Damage

This is seldom a serious pest. Maggots inside the cane girdle the shoots causing them to wilt and die from the point of girdling.

Identification

The adult is a small fly that is rarely noticed. The maggot is creamy white and reaches about 0.5 cm in length.

Life History

There is one generation a year. The maggot overwinters in the shoot. In the spring it pupates and turns into an adult fly. The fly lays a single egg on unopened leaves at the tip of a new shoot. The egg hatches within a week, and the resulting maggot bores about 15 cm down inside the shoot, then turns outward and girdles it, leaving a bluish ring. The shoot droops at this point, then shrivels and dries up.

Monitoring

Watch for wilted shoots—they are the only reliable indication of this pest.

Management

Cultural control

Break off and burn or bury wilting shoots.

Chemical control

 

No sprays are needed.

Caterpillars, Leafrollers, leaf-tiers, cutworms, spanworms and others

Hosts

All berry crops are subject to attack by one or more caterpillar species.

Damage

Caterpillars may reduce plant health and yield by feeding on foliage, buds and fruit, but usually the damage is not significant. They can also be a contamination problem at harvest, especially the oblique banded leafroller.

Identification

There are more than 25 species of caterpillars that may attack raspberry plants at some time during the growing season. Only a few of them are major pests. In recent years, the oblique banded leafroller has been the major early season pest. This is a pale to medium green worm with a brown to black head. It grows to about 2.5 cm (1 in) and wiggles rapidly if disturbed.

Other early season caterpillar pests are Bruce’s spanworm, dusky leafroller, European leafroller, strawberry tortrix (also a leafroller) and Herpetogramma pertextalis, for which there is no common name. Climbing cutworms such as variegated cutworm, Bertha armyworm, brown fruitworm, speckled green fruitworm, and alfalfa looper may also be early and mid season pests.

Life History

Oblique banded leafrollers overwinter as young larvae, often between canes. They begin feeding on new leaves and buds, and rolling leaves, in April. This feeding does not usually cause significant damage to the plants. The caterpillars feed until late May or early June, then pupate and emerge as moths. The moths mate and lay eggs on leaves and canes. The second generation leafrollers that hatch from these eggs can contaminate harvested berries in July and August.

Variegated cutworms may be present as the buds begin to swell and break in late March to early April, when they start feeding on the buds and new growth.

Monitoring

It is helpful to work with an integrated pest management (IPM) consultant when monitoring for caterpillar pests. Monitor for caterpillars by looking for feeding damage on the shoot tips and rolled leaves, starting in April. Check 4 to 5 well-distributed sites in each field. At each site, select 20 plants to inspect. Keep records of date, field, and location for each inspection. Monitor every two weeks in April and May. Control sprays may be advisable when leafrollers are present on 10% of the inspected plants. Start watching for cutworms in late March to early April. They are active at night so are best detected in the evening by placing a beating tray under the foliage and shaking the plant gently.

Management

Biological control

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt or Btk) is a soil bacteria that kills leafroller and spanworm caterpillars when they eat it. Caterpillars stop feeding within hours and die within a couple of days. See recommendations under “Chemical Control”.

Trichogramma

Trichogramma minutum is a tiny wasp which searches for eggs of caterpillar pests and lays its own eggs in them. Inside the pest egg, the immature wasp kills the developing caterpillar and feeds on it for 10-14 days before it emerges, mates and begins searching for more pest eggs. These tiny parasitoids are produced commercially and have been under investigation for several years for control of Oblique banded leafroller (the most prevalent contaminant) in raspberry. Although there are a number of species available commercially, the most efficient species for leafroller is Trichogramma minutum, which can reduce numbers of caterpillars in canes at harvest by 70%. This is often sufficient to put the field below a spray threshold for a caterpillar clean-up spray.

Field experience indicates that climbing cutworms (bertha armyworm) are also controlled by T. minutum if the moths are flying in June when the T. minutum are released.

T. minutum must be present in field from the first pheromone trap catch of oblique banded leafroller moths until the moth flight is complete (3 to 5 weeks, June to early July). T. minutum should be applied on a weekly basis either by setting out T. minutum-parastized eggs on cards in a grid at designated sites or by broadcast application at a rate of 25 female wasps/m2 (100,000 female wasps/acre).

Setting out parasitized eggs on cards is more labour intensive, but parasitoid survival should be better than broadcast application. For broadcast application, a “bug-blower” is mounted on the back of an all-terrain vehicle. It distributes T. minutum by puffing out a mixture of parasitized-eggs and fine vermiculite into an air and water stream every 3 m. This service is provided by custom applicators in the Fraser Valley and has been used successfully on several raspberry farms.

This technique is best used within an IPM program using the services of a pest management consultant. Contact BCAGRI for further information.

Chemical control

Use one of the following:

Capture 240 EC (240 g/L bifenthrin) at 467 mL/ha (187 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage of foliage. One application may be made before bloom  and a second application may be made after bloom and before harvest. Do not make applications less that 30 days apart. Do not apply during bloom. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Delegate WG (25% spinetoram) at 100 to 200 g/ha (40 to 80 g/acre) at egg hatch or to small larvae. Use the higher rate for high populations and/or larger larvae. Reapply if necessary. Delegate is toxic to bees - do not apply when bees are actively foraging. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Allow a re-treatment interval of at least 5 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Intrepid 240F (240 g/L methoxyfenozide) at 0.5 to 0.75 L/ha (0.2 to 0.3 L/acre). Monitor and time applications for egg hatch or when larvae are small. Use the higher rate under heavy insect pressure or when larvae are large. For leafrollers, apply before larvae roll up in leaves. Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or 

Success 480SC (480 g/L spinosad) at 145 to 182 mL/ha (58 to 73 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the upper rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Entrust 80W (80% spinosad) at 80 to 109 g/ha (32 to 44 g/acre) or Entrust SC (240 g/L spinosad) at 267 to 364 mL/ha (107 to 146 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the upper rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do not apply within 3 days of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production; or

DiPel WP (Bacillus thuringiensis) at 1.1 to 2.25 kg/ha (440 to 900 g/acre) or DiPel 2XDF  at 525 to 1125 g/ha (210 to 450 g/acre) or Foray 48BA  at 1.4 to 2.8 L/ha (0.56 to 1.1 L/acre); or Bioprotec CAF  at 1.4 to 2.8 L/ha (0.6 to 1.1 L/acre). For all Bt formulations, thorough coverage is essential for good control. Use up to 2000 L/ha (800 L/acre) of water. Best control is obtained when daytime high temperatures are above 18oC. Can be applied up to the day of harvest; or

Sevin XLR Plus (466 g/L carbaryl) at 5.25 L/ha (2.1 L/acre). Use 1000 to 2000 L/ha spray volume.  Sevin is toxic to bees - do not apply during the blossom period. Do not apply within 11 days of harvest

Crown Borer

Hosts

This insect affects all cane fruits including raspberry, Himalaya and cutleaf blackberry, loganberry, boysenberry, thimble berry and salmonberry.

Damage

Larvae girdle new canes causing galls at the base. These weakened canes often break off during tying in the spring. Large larvae tunnel in the fleshy part of the root, further reducing the vigour of canes.

Identification

The day flying adult is a clear-winged moth resembling a yellow jacket wasp in color and size. The larvae are white with brown heads and are found in tunnels inside the cane or root.

Life History

This insect has a two year life cycle. The eggs are laid in August and September on the undersides of leaves near the edges. The young larvae crawl down the canes and spend the first winter in a cell on the cane near the soil. The next spring they become active and start to girdle the new canes. Later they bore into the base of the cane and cause swellings at or below the soil surface. They spend the second winter in the tunnels and feed from spring until June or July when they pupate. Adult moths emerge beginning in late July.

Monitoring

Watch for canes that break off when tying up in the spring. If more than 5% of the plants have hollow canes, caused by borer larvae feeding, chemical controls are recommended.

Management

Cultural control

Immediately after harvest or when setting canes on the wires, prune out loose canes and those with galls at the base. Cut back close to the crown.

Chemical control

If a treatment is needed (5% of canes infested), one of the following insecticides should be applied as a drench to the crown area of the plant between early fall and early the next spring.

Apply:

Diazinon 500E (500 g/L diazinon) at 1 L/1000 L of water; apply 600 ml per plant or up to 4000 L/ha (1600 L/acre). Apply this mixture when new growth is about 10 cm high; or

Altacor (35% chlorantraniliprole) at 215 to 285 g/ha (86 to 114 g/acre) as a basal spray in enough water to ensure good coverage of primocanes. Apply in late summer or early fall to first-instar larvae when they are actively feeding in the cambium, before they tunnel into the crown or canes. Use the high rate when pest pressure is heavy. Do not apply more than 3 times per season. Do not apply more than once every 14 days. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

European Blackberry Leaf Midge (Dasineura plicatrix)

Hosts

Blackberry, raspberry, loganberry

Damage

Unopened leaves on primocanes and fruiting laterals turn black and fail to open or become distorted, twisted, kinked, or creased as they attempt to expand.

Identification

Small, milky coloured legless larvae, 1 mm wide and 2-3 mm long, are found within unopened leaves. Several can be present in an infested bud. Adults are small delicate flies which are rarely seen.

Life Cycle

Adults emerge in the spring and lay eggs in unopened leaves. Larvae feed within the growing tips for about four weeks, and then drop to the soil to pupate. New adults emerge and lay eggs. There appears to be approximately three overlapping generations per year in south western BC. Larvae can be observed from mid May through late August. In late summer larvae drop to the soil and overwinter as mature larvae or pupae.

Monitoring

Look for damage on growing tips of primocanes and fruiting laterals in early May and through the summer. Damage on opening leaves can be seen all season, and tends to build up and spread through the field with each successive generation.

Management

It is not likely that this pest will reach levels high enough to affect yield as leaf midge is considered a minor pest in Europe. However, it is relatively new to BC, and may have differing impacts on crops here. If midge is present in fields it should be monitored each year to determine if population and subsequent damage is increasing.

Cultural control

 

There are no known naturally occurring biological control agents for leaf midge.

Chemical control

There are no chemicals specifically registered for midge, however, broad-spectrum insecticides used for raspberry fruit worm, leafhoppers or leafrollers may give some control of leaf midge. Midges are generally difficult to control with pesticides because the larvae are protected by leaves and the generations are overlapping.

 

Fruitworms (Raspberry Beetle)

Hosts

Raspberry, loganberry, and blackberry.

Damage

The adult beetles cause some reduction in yield by feeding on unfolding leaves and blossom clusters. The larvae feed within flowers and then burrow between the core and the flesh of the berries. They can be a serious contamination problem at harvest.

Identification

The small (2 to 3 mm), yellowish-brown beetles of the western raspberry fruitworm are somewhat flattened and covered with short hairs. Larvae are pale yellow, 3 to 4 mm long, and have short legs.

Life History

Adult beetles overwinter in the soil, emerging from late April to early May. They feed on new leaves, blossoms and berries, and lay eggs which hatch into whitish-yellow larvae. These enter the blossoms and young berries, some feeding until harvest. Most larvae mature, leave the berry and drop to the ground where they enter the soil and pupate. Adults form in late summer and overwinter.

Monitoring

Watch for damage to unfolding leaves and developing flower buds. A beating tray can be used to monitor adult fruitworm activity before and during bloom. Work in Washington has shown that beetles are attracted to non-ultraviolet white sticky traps. Traps such as the Rebell R Bianco are effective for monitoring beetle flight activity. Locate traps along field edges near adjacent raspberry fields or areas of alternate Rubus hosts (e.g. blackberry, thimbleberry). However, there are no threshold levels established for determining if sprays are required.

Management

Chemical control

The best time to control this insect is just prior to bloom and before it begins to lay eggs. Spray when blossom bud clusters separate and again if required just prior to blossom opening with:

Malathion 25W (25% malathion) at 4 to 5 kg/1000 L of water. Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Note:

Malathion must be applied at temperatures 20°C and above to be effective.

Leafhoppers

Hosts

Red raspberry, blackberry, loganberry, boysenberry and thimbleberry.

Damage

Leafhoppers are not usually a serious pest except on blackberry and loganberry. Both nymphs and adults feed on the underside of leaves. They suck sap from the leaves, causing whitish spots on the upper surfaces. Heavy infestations result in mottled leaves which can wither and curl in hot weather. Plants lack vigour, and the berries can be small and often sticky from honeydew secreted by the leafhoppers. A black mould can develop on the honeydew.

Identification

The nymphs are small, pale white and quick moving when disturbed. Adults are slender and about 3 mm long with folded wings. They vary in colour from pale white to brownish-green.

Life History

There are two generations each year. Most of the population overwinters as eggs laid under the bark of the canes. First generation nymphs hatch in early May and feed for three or four weeks on the undersides of leaves before becoming winged adults. These adults lay eggs in the leaves and petioles from late June until early September. Second generation nymphs appear in late July and early August, and mature in late August and early September. These adults lay the overwintering eggs.

Monitoring

Watch for nymphs on underside of leaves, beginning in early May.

Management
Chemical control

If necessary, apply:

Assail 70WP (70% acetamiprid) at  56 to 86 g/ha (22 to 34 g/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Use the higher rate when pest pressure is heavy.  Do not apply more than once every 7 days.  Do not apply more than 4 times per season. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or 

Note: Assail is toxic to bees. Do not apply during bloom when bees are actively foraging. 

Malathion 25W (25% malathion) at 4 to 5 kg/1000 L of water. Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Malthion 85E (85% malathion) at 880 mL/ha (352 mL/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Repeat as necessary. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or Malathion 500 E (500 g/L malathion) at 1.8 L/ha (0.72 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Malathion 50EC (50% malathion) at 2 to 2.5 L/ha (0.8 to 1 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Note: Malathion must be applied when the temperature is 20 C or higher to be effective.

Success 480SC (480 g/L spinosad) at 145 to 182 mL/ha (58 to 73 mL/acre) in 300 to 500 L/ha of water. Use the hhigher rate under high insect pressure and/or on large larvae. Apply a maximum of 3 times per year and do apply within 3 days of harvest; or

PyGanic EC1.4 (1.4 % pyrethrins) at 2.32 to 4.65 L/ha (0.93 to 1.86 L/acre) in enough water to ensure complete coverage of all plant surfaces. Apply promptly after mixing. Do not reapply within 7 days. Do not apply more than 8 times per season. It may be applied up to the day of harvest. It is OMRI approved for organic production.

Sawflies

Hosts

Mainly raspberry, most cane fruit.

Damage

Sawflies occur sporadically and are seldom a serious pest. Vigorous raspberry plants are not seriously damaged by sawfly larvae unless they are in outbreak numbers. Larvae feed on the leaves, usually between the veins, causing large elongated holes or even completely skeletonized leaves.

Identification

Adults are sawflies which are thick-waisted wasps with four clear wings. They are about 6 mm long, black with yellow and reddish markings. Larvae are pale green caterpillars with many legs and grow to about 13 mm long.

Life History

Mature larvae overwinter in a cocoon in the soil. These pupate in the spring and adult sawflies appear in May and June. They lay their eggs within the leaf tissue. Larvae feed on leaves throughout the summer, even into November. Mature larvae drop to the ground where they bury themselves and spin cocoons in which they overwinter.

Management

Treatment is the same as for leafhoppers or fruitworms.

Spotted Wing Drosophila

Hosts

Berries, stone fruits and numerous wild hosts

Damage

Female flies lay eggs under the skin of ripe fruit shortly before harvest. Larvae hatch and begin to feed within the fruit, causing softening in the area of feeding. There can be several larvae in a fruit, which hastens softening and fruit collapse. Holes the size of pin pricks are evident within the soft areas of infested blueberries.

Identification

Adults: 2-3 mm (1/8 inch) long, brownish with red eyes and clear fly-like wings. Males have a black/grey spot on the end of each wing, as well as two black ‘combs’ or bands on each front leg. The females do not have spots or leg bands. Females have saw-like egg-laying organs (ovipositors) that are used to cut into fruit skin. Ovipositors are easier to see when extended. A hand-lens or dissecting microscope is needed to identify ovipositor.

Eggs: 0.6 mm long, oval, white, 2 filaments at one end.

Larvae: Legless, headless, up to 6 mm long at maturity, milky-white.

Pupa: 3 mm long, brown, football-shaped, two stalks with small finger-like projections on ends.

Life History

SWD overwinter as adult flies. In spring flies become active and lay eggs in ripening fruit. Based on climate model predictions, there could be up to five generations per year in BC. Generations overlap as flies are relatively long-lived particularly at temperatures of 20°C and cooler. Based on Japanese literature, a female can lay eggs for 10-59 days, with 7-16 eggs laid per day, and average 384 eggs per female. Eggs hatch in 2-72 hours, larvae mature in 3-13 days, and pupae reside in fruit or outside of fruit for 3-15 days. In the lab at constant temperature, one generation takes 50 days at 12°C, 21-25 days at 15°C, 19 days at 18°C, 8.5 days at 25°C, and 7 days at 28°C. Adults are attracted to and feed on ripe and decaying fruit.

Monitoring

Flies can be monitored with cup-like traps baited with apple cider vinegar. Place traps when the temperature is consistently over 10°C and/or before fruit starts to ripen. Hang traps in the plant canopy in a shady location. Check traps once per week and look for the SWD adults in the bait solution. Use a hand lens or other magnifier to see the female ovipositor. Replace the bait solution each week. Suspect fruit can also be collected and inspected for larvae.

Management

Cultural control

Where practical, remove or bury cull fruit to eliminate additional feeding and breeding sites. Keep equipment and processing areas free of old fruit. Think beyond the borders of your farm and be aware of host plants in adjacent fields. Encourage neighbours to also manage for SWD. Shorten picking interval where possible: pick early, clean and often.

Biological control

To date, there are no commercially available biological controls for SWD. Research is underway to identify potential predators and/or parasites that may be useful in managing SWD.

Chemical control

Chemical control will be required if trapping shows that adult SWD flies are present in the field when berries begin to ripen. Adults are the target and are killed by direct spray contact and/or when they are exposed to residues of insecticide on the treated fruit and leaves.

Consider the following when planning a spray program:

  1. All of the recommended products are toxic to bees. Avoid application when crops are blooming and bees are in the field. If sprays are necessary during this time, they should be applied at night.
  2. Use enough water and pressure to ensure adequate coverage (up to 500 L/ha of water). Flies prefer to feed in the lower, shaded part of the canopy.
  3. Use spray equipment that will allow effective coverage. Currently, no products are registered for aerial application.
  4. To limit development of resistance, rotate between the recommended products.
  5. A 7 – 14 day spray interval may be necessary to protect fruit through the ripening period depending on temperature and pest pressure.
  6. A post-harvest spray may be necessary to prevent flies from building up on residual fruit and spreading to adjacent later ripening crops.

The following products are registered for SWD control:

Delegate WG (25% spinetoram) at 315 to 420 g/ha (126 to 168 g/acre). Do not apply more than 3 times per year. Allow a re-treatment interval of at least 7 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Entrust SC (240 g/L spinosad) at 333 to 444 mL/ha (133 to 178 mL/acre). Minimum re-treatment interval is 5 days. It is OMRI approved for organic production. Do not apply more than 3 times per year and do not apply with 1 day of harvest.

Exirel (100 g/L cyantraniliprole) at 1000 to 1500 mL/ha (400 to 600 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or a maximum of 4.5 L/ha (1.8 L/acre). Allow a re-entry interval of at least 5 days. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

The following products received emergency registration for SWD in 2017:

Mako EC (407 g/L cypermethrin) at 150 mL/ha (60 mL/acre). Apply only once per crop per year.  Apply between June 1 and November 30, 2017. Do not apply within 2 days of harvest; or

Note: Maximimum residue limit of cypermethrin in fruit in Canada is 0.1 ppm. Consult with your packer before using Mako.

Malathion 85E (85% malathion) at 1 L/ha (400 mL/acre) in up to 1000 L of water. Apply when the temperature is 20°C or more. Apply between June 1 and November 30, 2017. Do not apply more than 2 times per year. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

For more information see supporting document: Spotted Wing Drosophila Brochure

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Hosts

All raspberry varieties are susceptible to mite infestations.

Damage

Two-spotted spider mites cause damage to the leaves, particularly during prolonged warm periods. They usually feed on the lower leaf surface, resulting in a whitish flecking on the upper surface. Heavy infestations can result in leaves drying up and dropping off.

Identification

Two-spotted spider mites are very tiny. From April to October, they are pale yellow to green, and females have two large black spots on the back and sides of the body. Orange overwintering females appear in late September and October. Fine silk webbing is typically present on the underside of the leaves infested with mites.

Life History

In March, the spider mites begin feeding and egg-laying on the newly emerging leaves. Eggs hatch in one to two weeks and the immature mites become reproductive adults in another one to three weeks. Mites develop faster at higher temperatures so more generations occur and numbers may increase rapidly in hot weather, particularly if native predators have been eliminated by broad-spectrum insecticides.

Monitoring

Start inspecting leaves for spider mites and mite predators in early May. Sample at least every two weeks during May and June. White speckling is a sign of mite feeding. Turn over leaves with these symptoms and examine for mites and mite predators. Use a 10 X power hand lens. Sample from four well-distributed sites per field and inspecting 10 leaflets at each site. Keep records of the date, field area and sampling results for each inspection. Include spider mites and mite predators. No threshold levels are established for applying control sprays; however, strawberry thresholds provide some guidelines (see Strawberry section in this guide). Field history and ratio of predators to pest mites needs to be considered.

Have a knowledgeable person help identify the beneficial mites and two-spotted mites.

Management

Biological control

The relatively lesser effect of mites on raspberries than on strawberries means that greater reliance can be placed on natural controls such as predatory mites (Amblyseius fallacis) and beetles (Stethorus punctillum). If these biological control agents are present in sufficient numbers, they should adequately control spider mites.

If predators are not present due to sprays or because the planting is new, Amblyseius and Stethorus can be purchased and introduced. Preliminary tests show that a minimum of 7,000 Amblyseius/acre should be released. Apply higher rates on fields with a history of high spider mite populations. Release predators in new fields when leaves are growing and touching between the canes.

To decrease the number of predators required, they can be released into the mite ‘hotspots’, instead of applied to the whole field.

Contact your crop consultant, supplier or BCAGRI for details on releasing biological control agents.

Chemical control

Alternate between the recommended products below to prevent mite resistance from developing.

Apollo SC (500 g/L clofentezine) at 500 mL/ha in 500 to 1000 L of water/ha (0.2 L/acre in 200 to 400 L of water/acre) using ground equipment. Apply at the first sign of mite activity. Apollo acts only against eggs and very young larval stages (motiles). The older immatures and adults are not killed. Most predatory mites will survive. Do not make more than one application of Apollo per season. Do not apply within 15 days of harvest; or

Note: Apollo is not acceptable for some markets. Check with your packer before using.

Acramite 50WS (50% bifenazate) at 851 g/ha (340 g/acre) in a minimum of 500 L/ha (200 L/acre) of water and with enough pressure to ensure coverage on both sides of the leaves. Apply when mite populations begin to build. Do not apply more than once per season. For resistance management, rotate the use of Acramite and other Group 25 miticides with products from different groups. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Note: Acramite is not acceptable for some markets. Check with your packer before using

Kanemite 15 SC (15.8 % acequinocyl) at 2.07 L/ha (0.83 L/acre) in enough water and pressure to ensure good coverage on both sides of the leaves. Apply when mite populations begin to build. For resistance management, rotate the use of Kanemite and other Group 20B miticides with products from different groups. Allow a minimum 21 days between applications. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest; or

Agri-mek 1.9 % EC (19 g/L abamectin) at 1.0 L/ha (0.4 L/acre) in at least 375 L/ha (150 L/acre) of water. Make the first application when mites first appear. Allow a minimum or 7 days between applications.  Do not apply more than three times before harvest, or more than two times post-harvest. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest; or

Pyramite 75 WP or Nexter (75% pyridaben) at 300 to 600 g/ha (120 to 240 g/acre) in 1000 L/ha (400 L/acre) of water when mites first appear. Do not apply more than twice per season. Apply post-harvest only.

 

Weevils

Hosts

All raspberry varieties, blueberries, strawberries, woody ornamentals

Damage

Raspberries adjacent to strawberries or wooded areas may be damaged by root weevils. The main damage is caused very early in the spring by adult clay coloured weevils feeding on the unopened buds. Damage is often mistaken for winter injury. Adult black vine weevils and obscure weevils which emerge in June can be serious contaminants in machine-harvested fruit. The larvae (grubs) feed on the roots and weaken cane growth.

Identification

Adults of the clay coloured weevil and other species feed on raspberry buds in the early spring. All species are similar in habits and appearance. Larvae are white, legless, “C”– shaped grubs which feed on the roots during most of the summer and winter. Adults are flightless, hard-shelled, and have long, downward curved shouts and elbowed antennae.

Life History

Adults start to emerge from the soil in the early spring and most have emerged by mid-June. The adults climb the canes at night to feed on the buds and new laterals. Because they are flightless, they spread relatively slowly in a raspberry field. Eggs are laid by mid-July and hatch into grubs that feed on the roots through the fall, winter and spring. There is one generation per year.

Monitoring

Start inspecting the canes in March for signs of damage to the buds and new laterals (leaf flagging and notching) caused by clay coloured weevils. Adult weevils feed at night and usually return to the trash at the base of the plant in the day. Weevils may stay in the foliage on cool, cloudy days especially if the foliage is dense. Adult weevils can be detected in the evening by placing a beating tray under the foliage and shaking the plant gently. Monitor for black vine weevils and obscure weevils in June and July in the same fashion. Record weevil numbers for each inspection.

Management

Biological control

Ground beetles (Carabids) feed on weevil grubs, pupae and adults. The contribution they make to control has not been determined, but they should be encouraged.

Chemical control

Weevil sprays can kill predatory mites resulting in increased two-spotted mite populations. If sprays are applied, monitor for mites and be prepared to control if necessasry.

Make sure that the damage is caused by weevils as buds can be damaged from other factors such as frost. Check with a crop consultant or the BCAGRI, if uncertain.

Apply insecticide sprays for adult weevils before egg laying starts. For clay coloured weevils spray in early spring when damage to buds and new shoots is first observed. For black vine and obscure weevils, sprays should be applied after weevil emergence in June just before first harvest.

Apply sprays in the evening, after a warm, sunny day. Under these conditions, the weevils will be active and moving up the canes to the foliage and will be exposed to and killed by foliar sprays.

The following products are registered for adult weevil control:

Capture 240 EC (240 g/L bifenthrin) at 467 mL/ha (187 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage of foliage. One application may be made before bloom for clay coloured weevils and a second application may be made after bloom and before harvest for control of black vine and other weevil species. Do not make applications less that 30 days apart.  Do not apply during bloom. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Actara 25WG (25% thiamethoxam) at 210 to 280 g/ha (84 to 112 g/acre) in sufficient water to obtain coverage of foliage. Apply when adult weevils or weevil damage is detected. Repeat application if insect populations rebuild. Allow at least 7 days between treatments. Use the higher rate for heavy infestations. Do not apply more than twice per season. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest; or

Note: Actara is higly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or to residues on blooming crops. Do not apply if bees are visiting the treated area. After an Actara application wait at least 5 days before placing bee hives in the field.

Malathion 85 E (85% malathion) at 1.35 L/ha (0.5 L/acre). Spray for thorough coverage. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

Note: Malathion must be applied when the temperature is 20°C or higher to be effective. Malathion is a direct contact insecticide–the spray must hit the weevils to be effective.

Exirel (100 g/L cyantraniliprole) at 1000 to 1500 mL/ha (400 to 600 mL/acre) in enough water to obtain good coverage. Do not apply more than 4 times per season or a maximum of 4.5 L/ha (1.8 L/acre). Apply when most of adult weevils have emerged before they begin to lay eggs.  Allow at least 5 days between treatments. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest. 

Wireworms

Damage

Wireworms bore into raspberry crowns and destroy them. In heavy infestations, they feed on established plants and greatly reduce the yield, and weaken the plants. Wireworms are seldom a problem, but can cause heavy plant losses to raspberry plantings following sod.

Identification

Yellowish-brown, shiny, slender, hard-bodied worms 5 to 25 mm long.

Management

Plan for control in field preparation for new plantings. For information on controlling wireworms, refer to “General Berry Pests” in this guide.

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